Question II: Since this is the 3rd #Saudi State, What about the first two? Who founded them and why did they end?
First Saudi State:
-Founded by Mohammad bin Saud and Sheikh Mohammad bin Abdulwahhab in year 1744 A.D. with a pact between them that was sealed by the marriage of bin Abdulwahhab’s daughter to bin Saud’s son.
-The state lasted for 75 years, through which it had 4 rulers.
-It ended in 1817 A.D. with the Ottoman-Saudi war. When the armies of Mohammad Ali Pasha of Egypt, under the Ottoman rule, placed Al-Dereya (the Saudi capital at the time) under siege for a few months until it surrendered.
-Abdullah bin Saud was captured and sent to Constantinople where he was beheaded. A number of religious figures were also executed as their extremist views were deemed more dangerous than political motivation.
Second Saudi State:
-Founded in 1824 when Turki bin Abdullah recaptured the city of Riyadh from the Ottoman army of Egypt.
-It lasted for 75 years during which it had 9 rulers.
-It ended in 1891 with a battle between Al-Saud and A-Rashid of Ha’il. Al-Rashid captured Riyadh and exiled Abdulrahman bin Faisal bin Turki and his family to Kuwait.
Now, Question III: Who ruled the arabian peninsula before Al-Saud?